Refeeding abolishes beneficial effects of severe caloric restriction from birth on adipose tissue and glucose homeostasis of adult
Dirceu de Sousa Melo, Carina de Sousa Santos, Liliane Costa Pereira, Bruno Ferreira Mendes, Larissa de Jesus Santos, Larissa de Jesus Santos, Edenil Costa Aguilar, Débora Ribeiro Nascimento, Almir de Sousa Martins, Flávio de Castro Magalhães, Elizabethe Adriana Esteves, Luciano dos Santos Aggum Capettini, Marco Fabrício Dias Peixoto.
Nutrition. 2019;66:87-93. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2019.03.022
Objectives: Calorie restriction (CR) is an important intervention for reducing adiposity and improving glucose homeostasis. Recently we found that in rats, a severe calorie restriction (SCR) beginning at birth up to adult age promotes positive effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and heart. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this new model of SCR on adipose tissue and glucose homeostasis of rats and to evaluate the effects of refeeding. Methods: From birth to 90 d of age, rats were divided into an ad libitum (AL) group, which had free access to food, and a CR50 group, which had food limited to 50% of that consumed by the AL group. From this moment, half of the CR50 animals had free access to food (the refeeding group [CR50-R]), and the other half continued 50% restricted for an additional 90-d period. Food intake was assessed daily and body weight weekly. In the final week of the SCR/refeeding protocol, oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests were performed. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed and visceral fat was collected and used for histologic and Western blot analysis. Results: Findings from this study revealed that SCR beginning at birth and up to adult life promoted a large decrease in visceral adiposity; improvement in glucose/insulin tolerance; and upregulation of adipose proliferating cell nuclear antigen, sirtuin 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and adiponectin. Refeeding abolished all of these effects. SCR from birth to adult age promoted beneficial effects on adipose tissue and glucose homeostasis; whereas refeeding abolished these effects.
A single session of high-intensity interval exercise increases antioxidants defenses in the hippocampus of wistar rats
Camila S. Melo, Etel Rocha-Vieira, Daniel Almeida Freitas, Bruno A. Soares, Arthur Rocha-Gomes, Tânia Regina Riul, Vanessa Amaral Mendoça, Ana Cristina Rodrigues Lacerda, Ana Cristina Resende Camargos, Luciana Estefani Drumond Carvalho, Ricardo Augusto Leoni de Sousa, Hércules Ribeiro Leite.
Physiol Behav. 2019 1;211:112675. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.112675.
It is known that a single session of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) contributes to the increase of the reactive species of oxygen, accompanied by a greater antioxidant activity. However, it is poorly understood if a single session of HIIE has similar effects on the brain tissue. This study evaluated the effects of a single HIIE on the hippocampal redox status. Sixteen males Wistar rats were allocated into HIIE (n = 8) and control (n = 8) groups. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was evaluated using a treadmill at 10 inclination in a metabolic chamber. HIIE group was submitted to a single run on the treadmill composed by 10 bouts of high-intensity exercise of 1 min each (85-100% of VO2max), at 28 m/min, 10° inclination, interspersed by 2 min of active recovery, at 10 m/min, with no inclination. Analysis of the redox status at the hippocampus were conducted 24 h after the HIIE session. It was not identified lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus of the HIIE group (Control 1.9 ± 0.31, vs HIIT 2.2 ± 0.53 nmol MDA/mg protein (p > .05). However, the activity of the superoxide dismutase (Control 2.614 ± 0.225 vs HIIT 3.718 ± 0.4589 U/mg protein), and the non-enzymatic total antioxidant capacity (Control 1584 ± 75.88 vs HIIT 1984 ± 137.7 nM FeSO4/mg protein) were enhanced (p < .05) after the exercise session. These results indicate that the antioxidant mechanisms are enhanced even after a single session of HIIE. A single session of HIIE does not induce lipid peroxidation and improves the antioxidant defenses in Wistar rats’ hippocampus.
Late neutrophil priming following a single session of high-intensity interval exercise
Vinícius de Oliveira Ottone, Karine B Costa, Rosalina Tossige Gomes, Mariana Aguiar de Matos, Gustavo Eustaquio Brito Alvim de Melo, Flávio de Castro Magalhães, Elizabethe Adriana Esteves, Fabiano Amorim, Etel Rocha Vieira.
Int J Sports Med. 2019;40(3):171-179. doi: 10.1055/a-0810-8533.
This study evaluated the effect of an acute high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) session on the function of human neutrophils. Twelve sedentary men performed a HIIE session (8 bouts of 60 s at 90% of peak power, intercalated with 75 s of active recovery at 30 W). Neutrophils were collected before, 30 min and 24 h after the exercise session for the evaluation of phagocytic capacity, expression of phagocytic receptors, reactive oxygen species generation, and redox status. 24 h after the HIIE session, an increase was observed in both neutrophil phagocytic capacity and yeast-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, which indicates neutrophil priming in response to an acute HIIE session. Neutrophils also presented an increase in superoxide dismutase activity 24 h after the exercise. Improvement in neutrophil function was accompanied by increased serum levels of IL-8 and increased concentration of plasma lactate dehydrogenase. Our findings show a late activating effect of one HIIE session on neutrophils. We propose that priming of neutrophils by HIIE may play a role in skeletal muscle inflammation after exercise.
Stability of microencapsulated lactic acid bacteria under acidic and bile juice conditions
Dayana Pereira de Andrade, Cíntia Lacerda Ramos, Diego Alvarenga Botrel, Soraia Vilela Borges, Rosane Freitas Schwan, Disney Ribeiro Dias
International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2019, 54:2355-2362. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.14114
The probiotic strains Lactobacillus brevis CCMA1284 and Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA0359 were microencapsulated by spray drying using different matrices – whey powder (W), whey powder with inulin (WI) and whey powder with maltodextrin (WM). Viability of the microencapsulated strains in acid and bile juices and during 90 days of storage (seven and 25 C) was evaluated. The two strains exhibited high encapsulation efficiency (> 86%) by spray drying. The different matrices maintained L. plantarum viability above six log CFU g−1 at 7 C for 90 days, whereas similar results for L. brevis were observed only for W. The use of inulin as matrix of encapsulation did not enhance bacterial viability in the evaluated conditions. In general, the use of W and WM as matrices was effective for L. plantarum viability. However, only W was effective for L. brevis in the evaluated conditions. The spray drying technique was successfully adopted for the encapsulation of L. plantarum CCMA0359 and L. brevis CCMA1284 strains.
Nondairy ice cream based on fermented yam (discorea sp.)
Nádia N. Batista, Cíntia Lacerda. Ramos, Josiane F. Pires, Silvino I. Moreira, Eduardo Alves, Disney R. Dias, Rosane F. Schwan.
Food Sci Nutr. 2019; 7:1899–1907. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1051
Background: The demand for industrialized foods that contribute to health and well-being has characterized the new generation of consumers. Yam (Dioscorea sp.) is a nutritious food; however, it is not used very much in industrial food processes. The objective of this study was to develop and to characterize a truly dairy-free low-fat ice cream prepared from unfermented and fermented with yam dough. Results: The fermentation was conducted by Leuconostoc lactic CCMA 0415 re-mained viable (107 CFU/g) during 90 days of storage. The fermentation process re-duced the starch concentration from 26.82% to 22.35% and the protein concentration from 4.68% to 3.99% and increased the concentration of some minerals (K, S, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe). The total phenolic contents for fermented and unfermented ice creams were 51 and 54 mg, respectively. The radical scavenging activity were 18% and 10% with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method and 44% and 26% with the 2,2’-azino-bis (3 ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) method for the unfermented and fer-mented samples, respectively. The fermented and unfermented ice creams were both characterized as non-Newtonian fluids exhibiting pseudoplastic behaviors. Conclusions: These results indicated that yam is a suitable substitute for milk, thus making it an option to produce edible lactose-free ice cream with low fat.
Cafeteria diet in breastfeeding dams promotes anxiolytic effects, accumulation of adipose tissue, and impacts offspring development
Arthur Rocha-Gomes, Amanda Escobar T, Letícia Fernandes G, Jéssica Sena, Alexandre Alves da Silva, Mayara Rodrigues L, Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimone Pinto, Sérgio Stuckert-Seixas, Tania Regina Riul.
Rev Chil Nutr 2019; 46(6):735-745. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-75182019000600735
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and behavioral effects of a cafeteria diet in dams during the breastfeeding period and in their offspring from weaning until early adulthood (70 days old). Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a chow diet until delivery. Postnatally (D0), litters were culled to 8 pups and lactating dams received control (CTRL n= 6) or cafeteria (CAF n= 6) diets and water ad libitum. At the end of the breastfeeding period, male offspring were placed in individual boxes receiving the same treatment from their respective dams (CTRL or CAF) until adulthood (70 days). All nutritional and behavioral evaluations were performed with the dams (n= 12) during the breastfeeding phase and with the male offspring (n= 24) after weaning to adulthood. CAF dams demonstrated a lower caloric and protein intake; higher intake of fats; loss of weight; greater accumulation of adipose tissue; and an anxiolytic effect. CAF male offspring showed lower caloric intake; higher intake of fats; and accumulation of adipose tissue. In addition, these animals continued to have decreased body weight, body length and tibia-femur length in relation to CTRL. In dams, a cafeteria diet promoted alterations in body composition and anxiety, and in offspring the diet resulted in adequate development.
Evaluation of the influence of extraction conditions on the isolation and identification of volatile compounds from cagaita (eugenia dysenterica) using hs spme/gc-ms
Mauro Ramalho Silva, Gustavo H. Bueno, Raquel Linhares Bello de Araújo, Inayara Cristina Alves Lacerda, Lucas G. Freitas, Harriman Aley Morais, Rodinei Augusti, Júlio Onesio Ferreira Melo.
Braz. Chem. Soc.2019, 30(2):https://doi.org/10.21577/0103-5053.20180187
The objective of this study was to explore the extraction and identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in cagaita fruit (Eugenia dysenterica). Parameters such as type of extraction fiber, agitation, extraction time and extraction temperature were investigated. Initially, the VOCs were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction. Then, the compounds were identified using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Results revealed the presence of at least 26 different compounds and the polyacrylate (PA) fiber promoted the extraction of a larger number of VOCs. Regarding the PA fiber, the most efficient extraction was achieved using a 50 rpm agitation at 45 °C for 30 min. The majority were monoterpenes (34.64%) and esters (36.28%). An increase in the extraction temperature promoted the isolation of more VOCs when using carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fibers. However, these fibers allowed the isolation of a smaller number of VOCs. The extraction time and agitation had no significant influence
Fermentation of yam (dioscorea spp. l.) by indigenous phytase-producing lactic acid bacteria strains
Nádia Batista, Cíntia Ramos Lacerda, Leonardo Vilela, Disney Ribeiro Dias, Rosane Freitas Schwan.
Braz J Microbiol. 2019; 50:507–514. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42770-019-00059-5
The use of lactic bactéria in the development of functional foods has increased in recent years. In addition to their probiotic characteristics, they can ferment a variety of substrates, such as cereals, roots, and tubers. Phytase producer lactic acid bactéria strains and their behavior during the fermentation process of yam-based food were studied. Leuconostoc lactis CCMA 0415, Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0744, and Lactobacillus fermentum CCMA 0745 were selected due to phytase production, pH reduction, and growth during 24 h of fermentation. Oxalate activity was not detected in all assays, suggesting its concentration was reduced due to the bleaching process. Among the selected strains, L. lactis CCMA 0415 appeared to be a promising strain in yam-based fermentations because it maintained a cell viability above 8 log CFU/mL and did not reduce diosgenin concentrations (around 8.0 µg/mL) after fermentation for 24 h, thereby, generating a potentially functional yam food. Furthermore, this strain promoted the decrease of pH value from 6.1 to 3.8 and produced 8.1 g/L lactic acid, at 6 h of fermentation. The L. lactis CCMA 0415 was reported as a starter culture in fermented products based on cereals, roots, and tubers.
Swimming training potentiates the recovery of the femoral neck strength in young diabetic rats under insulin therapy
Gilton de Jesus Gomes, Ricardo Junqueira Del Carlo, Márcia Ferreira da Silva, Daise Nunes Queiroz da Cunha, Edson da Silva, Karina Ana da Silva, Miguel Araújo Carneiro-Junior, Thales Nicolau Prímola-Gomes, Antônio José Natali.
CLINICS 2019;74:e829 http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2019/e829
Objective: To test whether swimming training benefits femoral neck strength in young diabetic rats under insulin therapy. Methods: A total of 60 male Wistar rats (age: 40 days) were divided equally into the following six groups: control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary plus insulin and diabetic exercise plus insulin. Diabetes was induced with a unique intraperitoneal injection (60 mg/kg body weight) of streptozotocin. Seven days after the injection and after 12 hours of fasting, the animals with blood glucose levels X300 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Seven days after the induction of diabetes, the animals in the exercise groups were subjected to progressive swimming training (final week: 90 min/day; 5 days/week; 5% load) for eight weeks. The animals in the insulin groups received a daily dose of insulin (2-4 U/day) for the same period. Results: Severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes reduced the structural properties of the femoral neck (trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness and collagen fiber content). The femoral neck mechanical properties (maximum load and tenacity) were also impaired in the diabetic rats. Insulin therapy partially reversed the damage induced by diabetes on the structural properties of the bone and mitigated the reductions in the mechanical properties of the bone. The combination of therapies further increased the femoral neck trabecular bone volume (B30%), trabecular thickness (B24%), collagen type I (B19%) and type III (B13%) fiber contents, maximum load (B25%) and tenacity (B14%). Conclusions: Eight weeks of swimming training potentiates the recovery of femoral neck strength in young rats with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes under insulin therapy.
Composição em ácidos graxos do leite materno maduro de nutrizes
Ronilson Ferreira Freitas, Mariana de Souza Macedo, Angelina do Carmo Lessa, Vany Perpétua Ferraz, Nayanne Oliveira Soares, Brenda Evellyn Veríssimo Martins, Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni Pinto, Romero Alves Teixeira.
Rev. Bras. Saude Mater. Infant. 2019, 19 (4): 827-836. https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-93042019000400005
Objectives: to determine the fatty acid composition of mature milk of nursing mothers and its distribution according to some maternal variables. Methods: this is a cross-sectional observational epidemiological study based on the eva-luation of the fatty acid profile of mature human milk. Samples of mature breast milk were taken from 106 nursing mothers, by manual milking and who were after the 5th postpartum week. The milk fat extraction was carried out by using the Bligh and Dyer method and methy-lated with 0.25 mol/L sodium methoxide in methanol diethyl ether. The fatty acid of the milk profile was determined by a Gas Chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. Results: among the saturated fatty acids, the highest values were observed for palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) fatty acids, respectively. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, there was a higher contribution of oleic (C18:1) and palmi-toleic (C16:1) fatty acids, respectively. The total essential fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic) was 14.94%. Conclusions: a low content of essential fatty acids in the breast milk of the nursing mothers was observed in the present study, which are important for infant growth and deve-lopment. We suggest the need to implement nutrition education strategies aimed for pregnant women and nursing mothers who should be advised to eat healthier foods.
Unripe banana flour (musacavendishii) promotes decrease in weight gain and elimination of fecal cholesterol in wistar rats
Amanda Escobar, Arthur Rocha-Gomes, Clarisse Giovana Maciel dos Reis, Kiara Nubia Silva Herrera, Tiago de Jesus Guedes, Alexandre Alves da Silva, Mayara Rodrigues Lessa, Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni Pinto, Tania Regina Riul.
Nutrition & Food Science, 2019 50(1):157-167. DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2018-0337
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition of unripe banana flour from Southeast Brazil and verify its nutritional, physiological and biochemical properties in adult Wistar rats.
Design/methodology/approach: Analysis of soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, carbohydrate, resistant and total starch and energy was obtained. In all, 18 male Wistar rats were given different concentrations of unripe banana flour (0, 10 and 20 per cent) and these assessments were performed: feed, caloric and water intake; weight gain; coefficient of food efficiency; weight of organs; body, tibia and femur length; total mineral of bones; and biochemistry of blood, hepatic fluids and feces.Findings: Unripe banana flour showed a potential for weight control as well as increased fecal cholesterol excretion. These results showed the potential of unripe banana flour for obesity treatment and lipid excretion. Nevertheless, plasma triacylglycerol levels increased in the animals that received the largest amount of banana flour (20 per cent w/w), possibly because of the large amount of resistant starch in the flour, indicating the need for additional studies to confirm the mechanisms responsible for this increase.
Construction and validation of educational material for the promotion of breastfeeding
Nayara Martins Zille de Miranda, Maria Luísa Costa Pinto, Yazareni José Mercadantes Urquia, Marielly da Conceição Azevedo Almeida, Dirlene da Silva Sette, Luciana Neri Nobre.
Demetra: Alimentação, Nutrição & Saúde. 2019, 14(Suppl. 1):p1-15.
Objectives: To describe the development and validation of a breastfeeding manual (BM) for puerperal women, in order to promote breastfeeding. Methodology: In this methodological study, the manual was constructed from nationally and internationally recognized scientific documents and, subsequently, validated by different evaluators. Results: The manual was divided into 10 domains that have textual content in dialogue with the mother – questions and answers – and illustrations of the text. It was validated by 13 content evaluators, technicians and the area of design and marketing -specialists – and by 31 evaluators representing the target audience – women in puerperium period. The content validation by the different professionals was carried out through an electronic questionnaire and, in the case of women in puerperium period, by printed questionnaires, from March to June 2018. The content validity index was calculated to guarantee the quality of the material produced, and it reached satisfactory values, as follows: index of content validity of content evaluators – 0.96; technical – 0.90; design and marketing – 0.94; and women in puerperal period – 0.96. Conclusion: The manual developed in this research is an adequate resource for breastfeeding counseling and borne out by the excellent content validity index of the different evaluators
Avaliação da cultura de segurança do paciente em um hospital filantrópico
Alessandra Campos Fortes Fagundes Serrano, Delba Fonseca Santos, Selme Silqueira Matos; Vania Regina Goveia, Isabel Yovana Quispe Mendoza, Angelina do Carmo Lessa.
REME rev. min. enferm.; 2019; 23: e-1183.
Objective: to evaluate patient safety culture on the part of the multidisciplinary team in a Brazilian philanthropic hospital. Method: this is a quantitative cross-sectional study carried out with 209 professionals in 12 hospital sectors. For the da ta collection, the Hospital Survey On Patient Safety Culture, developed by the Agency for Health Researchand Quality, was used, translated and validated for the Portuguese language. The reliability of the instrument was verified by the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. Data analysis was accomplished by descriptive statistics. Results: the dimensions with the highest percentages of positive responses were: expectations and actions to promote patient safety by the supervisor/chief; organizational learning and continuous improvement; team work within the units. On the other hand, the dimensions with lower percentages of positive responses were: non-punitive responses to errors; professional and general perception on patient safety. Conclusion: these findings revealed that all dimensions of the patient safety culture should be worked out with the healthcare professionals, since that none of the dimensions exceeded 75% of positive responses (AU).
Estado nutricional de homens diagnosticados com diabetes mellitus tipo atendidos na atenção primária à saúde
Juliana Fernandes Jorge, Fabiano Divino Alves, Jonas Rabelo Soares, Angelina do Carmo Lessa, Josiane Santos Brant Rocha, Marcelo Eustáquio de Siqueira e Rocha, Ronilson Ferreira Freitas.
Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento, 2019,13(78):337-343.
Nutritional status of men diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type ii attention to primary health care Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of men diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus treated in Primary Health Care. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study with a quantitative characterization of 46 men diagnosed with diabetes mellitus II treated (age, skin color, schooling, marital status and income) and nutritional (weight, height, Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Circumference of the Waist circumference) were analyzed using a questionnaire that addressed sociodemographic and economic aspects Hip and Waist Ratio, Waist and Height Ratio, Body Adiposity Index, and Percentage of Total Body Fat). Results: It was observed that the majority of men were overweight/obese (63.1%). Through the evaluation of AC, WHR and RCA, it was observed that 80.4%, 97.8% and 91.3% of men, respectively, present an increased/very increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion: The present study points to the need for strategies to improve the nutritional status of the group studied here, especially considering the importance of nutritional status in the control of type II diabetes mellitus and comorbidities.
Atributos físicos, morfologia e composição centesimal do cártamo
Filipe Rodrigues Valeriano, Marcela Carlota Nery, Nisia Andrade Villela Dessimoni Pinto, Mahany das Graças Martins, Andréa dos Santos Oliveira, Fernanda Carlota Nery, Cintia Maria Teixeira Fialho
Cultura Agronômica, 2019,28(2):p.179-193. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32929/2446-8355.2019v28n2p179-193
Safflower is appreciated by oil rich in polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids obtained from its seeds. Thus, for a better understanding of the seed structures and their physiological processes, the objective of this work was to study the safflower grains, with morphological characterization, centesimal composition and sanity. The batch characterization was carried out and the morphological characterization of the grains and seedlings and the centesimal composition of the safflower grains were carried out. In addition, the determination of the number of seeds without “bark”, the studies of seed image analysis. The centesimal composition is characterized by the presence of high levels of ethereal extract, which allowed to confirm the species as oleaginous. The sanitary quality test showed a higher incidence of pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp. It is concluded that the safflower grain is tetragonal, eurispermic, and being classified as bitegumentate, with a smooth front.The embryo is easily observed when hydrated, being white aclorophylate and the cotyledons are fleshy, flat, long and approximately circular in outline.
Avaliação do estado nutricional de idosas praticantes de atividade física
Ronilsom Ferreira Freitas, Fabricia Pereira Cardoso dos Santos, Patrik Emanuel Soares Matos, Angelina do Carmo Lessa, Marcelo Eustáquio de Siqueira e Rocha, João Pedro Brant Rocha, Ariadna Janice Drumond Morais.
Revista Multitexto, [S.l.], 2019, 6(2):45-51. ISSN 2316-4484.
Brazil undergoes a transformation phase in the age pyramid, where an increasing number of elderly people have been observed. This also causes changes in the epidemiological profile of the population, where chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCD) become more prevalent. Among these diseases, we can highlight overweight and obesity. In this sense, the objective of this study was to verify the nutritional status of elderly women practicing physical activity, through anthropometry. This is an analytical, cross-sectional, quantitative study with 26 elderly women. Socio-demographic and economic variables were collected. To evaluate the nutritional status of the elderly, the following variables were collected: BMI = Body Mass Index; CC = Waist Circumference; RCQ = Waist-Hip Ratio; REC = Height-Waist Ratio. Through BMI, a high prevalence of overweight was observed, followed by obesity. And in the evaluation of WHR, he found that the majority of the sample presents a high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The present study identified a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases among the elderly. These findings point to the need for strategies for obesity control to be planned and implemented, especially among the elderly population.
Efeito do ph nas propriedades tecnológicas de concentrado proteico de soro de leite
Fernanda Barbosa Lupki, Pollyanna Aparecida Dias, Mauro Ramalho Silva, Harriman Aley Morais
Braz. J. of Develop., 2019;5(11):23036-23059. DOI:10.34117/bjdv5n11-031
Whey is by-product of the manufacture of cheese or casein, and it contains protein of high biological value, but is considered highly polluting industrial waste, representing a negative impact of the dairy industry in the world. Thus, it becomes important to find alternatives to their use. The whey proteins exhibit functional properties useful in industrialized food products, and this study aimed to evaluate the effect of protein concentration (0.1 to 2.0 %) and pH (3-7) on technological properties of them. It was found that the best results for solubility and water retention capacity was achieved at pH 6 and 7. At all pH values studied, the maximum emulsifying capacity was observed in protein concentration of 0.1 % but the most stable emulsions were obtained by heating at pH 6 and 7, in which the proteins also exhibited the best solubility. With respect to the foaming capacity, it was examined that the greatest expansion was obtained as the protein concentration was increased, reaching a maximum 2% , where greater stability is also obtained, especially at pH 6 to 7. Thus it can be concluded that the protein concentration and pH influence on the technological properties of whey proteins.
Perfil clínico de neonatos internados em uma unidade de tratamento intensivo neonatal
João Pedro Viana Dias, Marcela C Costa, Dirlene da Silva Sette, Luciana Neri Nobre
Braz. J. of Develop., 2019;5(10):22296-22309. DOI:10.34117/bjdv5n10-356
Objective: To describe the profile of newborns hospitalized in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital in the interior of Minas Gerais. Methods: This is a breakdown of a larger study entitled “effect of maize-based preparations on breastmilk production”. This cut refers to information on neonates born to mothers who agreed to participate in the abovementioned study hospitalized at the referred ICU during the year 2017. Results: The sample consisted of 42 neonates, with a similar distribution in relation to gender (45% female x 48% male). Most were born preterm and with low birth weight (n= 34; 81.0%), a large part of cesarean birth (n = 18; 42.7), with an Apgar score higher than 7 in the 5th minute of life (n= 35, 81.0%) and fed exclusively with breast milk (n= 38, 90.5%) and catheter (n= 32, 76.2%). The main cause of ICU retention was respiratory syndrome (n= 15; 88.1%) and death occurred in 7.1% (n= 3, 7.1%) of the neonates. Regarding the gestational characteristics of their mothers, these mothers had on average two children, most of whom did not plan the current gestation (n= 20, 47.6%), most performed between 3 and 7 prenatal consultations (n= 22, 52.4%), the Unified Health System (n= 33, 78.6%) and the general practitioner (n= 16, 38.1%). None used cigarettes and illicit drugs during pregnancy, nor did they use drugs that would interfere with lactation. Conclusion: It was observed that prematurity was the main cause of retention of the neonates in the ICU being inversely proportional to the birth weight of the infants studied.